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❶Despite following her usual precautions, Linda became pregnant with the Director's son during their time together and was therefore unable to return to the World State by the time that she found her way to Malpais. Huxley's remarkable book", [25] and Bertrand Russell also praised it, stating, "Mr.

Bernard and Helmholtz are banished to

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Aldous Huxley

Good-morrow old-fashioned greeting, used in Shakespeare's time, to mean "good day. Henry Ford U. Here, the god-like figure of the dystopia. Lambeth Palace the official residence in London of the Archbishop of Canterbury since Here, the home of the Arch-Community-Songster of Canterbury.

Malthusian drill Huxley's phrase for practicing contraception. From the word "Malthusian," referring to the theory developed by English economist Thomas Malthus , that the world population tends to increase faster than the food supply with inevitable disastrous results unless natural restrictions, such as war, famine, and disease, reduce the population or the increase is checked by moral restraint.

Model-T the first car produced on Henry Ford's assembly line. Neo-Pavlovian Conditioning Huxley's term for the dystopian form of infant training. The term derives from the classical conditioning system named for the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Here, Mustapha Mond's description of normal emotional tension. Our Freud Huxley's phrase. A pious reference to Sigmund Freud , Austrian physician and neurologist: Penitentes members of a penitential religious sect who whip themselves to express remorse for sin and in hope of forgiveness.

Here, the spiritual men of John's Malpais home. Here, Huxley's word describing a woman with a full, shapely figure. Podsnap's Technique Huxley's phrase. A method for speeding up the ripening of mature eggs. The process makes possible the production of many identical human beings at roughly the same time.

Here, Mustapha Mond uses the word humorously to describe his lowly position early in his career. Here, used to describe the Epsilon elevator operator. Here, Huxley's term for a powerful calming and hallucinogenic drug without any serious side effects.

Helena a small island in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Africa. It was Napoleon's prison after his defeat by the British.

Here, one of the many islands where Mustapha Mond sends people who challenge the World State. Here used to refer to John's feelings about Lenina. Here, describing Linda's sexually provocative entrance into the Fertilizing Room. Westminster Abbey Gothic church originally a Benedictine abbey where English monarchs are crowned; it is also a burial place for English monarchs, famous statesmen and writers, etc.

Here, the site of the Westminster Abbey cabaret, or nightclub. Removing book from your Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title. Huxley followed this book with a reassessment in an essay, Brave New World Revisited , and with Island , his final novel.

In , the Modern Library ranked Brave New World fifth on its list of the best English-language novels of the 20th century. How many goodly creatures are there here! How beauteous mankind is!

O brave new world, That has such people in't. Translations of the title often allude to similar expressions used in domestic works of literature: He was a contributor to Vanity Fair and Vogue magazines, and had published a collection of his poetry The Burning Wheel , and four successful satirical novels: Brave New World was Huxley's fifth novel and first dystopian work.

Huxley said that Brave New World was inspired by the utopian novels of H. He wrote in a letter to Mrs. Arthur Goldsmith, an American acquaintance, that he had "been having a little fun pulling the leg of H.

Wells", but then he "got caught up in the excitement of [his] own ideas. Huxley referred to Brave New World as a "negative utopia", somewhat influenced by Wells's own The Sleeper Awakes dealing with subjects like corporate tyranny and behavioural conditioning and the works of D.

The events of the Depression in Britain in , with its mass unemployment and the abandonment of the gold currency standard, persuaded Huxley to assert that stability was the "primal and ultimate need" if civilisation was to survive the present crisis. Shortly before writing the novel, Huxley visited Mond's technologically advanced plant near Billingham , north east England, and it made a great impression on him.

Huxley used the setting and characters in his science fiction novel to express widely held opinions, particularly the fear of losing individual identity in the fast-paced world of the future. Not only was Huxley outraged by the culture of youth, commercial cheeriness and sexual promiscuity, and the inward-looking nature of many Americans, [16] he had also found the book My Life and Work by Henry Ford on the boat to America, and he saw the book's principles applied in everything he encountered after leaving San Francisco.

The novel opens in the World State city of London in AF After Ford AD in the Gregorian calendar , where citizens are engineered through artificial wombs and childhood indoctrination programmes into predetermined classes or castes based on intelligence and labour. Lenina Crowne, a hatchery worker, is popular and sexually desirable, but Bernard Marx, a psychologist, is not.

He is shorter in stature than the average member of his high caste, which gives him an inferiority complex. His work with sleep-learning allows him to understand, and disapprove of, his society's methods of keeping its citizens peaceful, which includes their constant consumption of a soothing, happiness-producing drug called soma.

Courting disaster, Bernard is vocal and arrogant about his criticisms, and his boss contemplates exiling him to Iceland because of his nonconformity. His only friend is Helmholtz Watson, a gifted writer who finds it difficult to use his talents creatively in their pain-free society. Bernard takes a holiday with Lenina outside the World State to a Savage Reservation in New Mexico , in which the two observe natural-born people, disease, the aging process, other languages, and religious lifestyles for the first time.

The culture of the village folk resembles the contemporary Native American groups of the region, descendants of the Anasazi , including the Puebloan peoples of Acoma , Laguna and Zuni. Bernard and Lenina witness a violent public ritual and then encounter Linda, a woman originally from the World State who is living on the reservation with her son John, now a young man.

She, too, visited the reservation on a holiday many years ago, but became separated from her group and was left behind. She had meanwhile become pregnant by a fellow-holidaymaker who is revealed to be Bernard's boss, the Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning. She did not try to return to the World State, because of her shame at her pregnancy.

Despite spending his whole life in the reservation, John has never been accepted by the villagers, and his and Linda's lives have been hard and unpleasant. Ostracised by the villagers, John is able to articulate his feelings only in terms of Shakespearean drama, especially the tragedies of Othello , Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet.

Linda now wants to return to London, and John, too, wants to see this "brave new world". Bernard sees an opportunity to thwart plans to exile him, and gets permission to take Linda and John back.

On their return to London, John meets the Director and calls him his "father", a vulgarity which causes a roar of laughter. The humiliated Director resigns in shame before he can follow through with exiling Bernard.

Bernard, as "custodian" of the "savage" John who is now treated as a celebrity, is fawned on by the highest members of society and revels in attention he once scorned.

Bernard's popularity is fleeting, though, and he becomes envious that John only really bonds with the literary-minded Helmholtz. Considered hideous and friendless, Linda spends all her time using soma , while John refuses to attend social events organised by Bernard, appalled by what he perceives to be an empty society.

Lenina and John are physically attracted to each other, but John's view of courtship and romance, based on Shakespeare's writings, is utterly incompatible with Lenina's freewheeling attitude to sex. She tries to seduce him, but he attacks her, before suddenly being informed that his mother is on her deathbed. He rushes to Linda's bedside, causing a scandal, as this is not the "correct" attitude to death. Some children who enter the ward for "death-conditioning" come across as disrespectful to John until he attacks one physically.

He then tries to break up a distribution of soma to a lower-caste group, telling them that he is freeing them. Helmholtz and Bernard rush in to stop the ensuing riot, which the police quell by spraying soma vapor into the crowd.

Bernard, Helmholtz, and John are all brought before Mustapha Mond, the "Resident World Controller for Western Europe", who tells Bernard and Helmholtz that they are to be exiled to islands for antisocial activity. Bernard pleads for a second chance, but Helmholtz welcomes the opportunity to be a true individual, and chooses the Falkland Islands as his destination, believing that their bad weather will inspire his writing.

Mond tells Bernard that exile is actually a reward. The islands are full of the most interesting people in the world, individuals who did not fit into the social model of the World State.

Mond outlines for John the events that led to the present society and his arguments for a caste system and social control. John rejects Mond's arguments, and Mond sums up John's views by claiming that John demands "the right to be unhappy". John asks if he may go to the islands as well, but Mond refuses, saying he wishes to see what happens to John next. Jaded with his new life, John moves to an abandoned hilltop tower, near the village of Puttenham , where he intends to adopt a solitary ascetic lifestyle in order to purify himself of civilization, practising self-flagellation.

This soon draws reporters and eventually hundreds of amazed sightseers, hoping to witness his bizarre behaviour; one of them is implied to be Lenina. At the sight of the woman he both adores and loathes, John attacks her with his whip.

The onlookers are wildly aroused by the display and John is caught up in the crowd's soma -fueled frenzy. The next morning, he remembers the previous night's events and is stricken with remorse. Onlookers and journalists who arrive that evening discover John dead, having hanged himself.

Although Bernard is an Alpha-Plus the upper class of the society , he is a misfit. He is unusually short for an Alpha; an alleged accident with alcohol in Bernard's blood-surrogate before his decanting has left him slightly stunted. Bernard's independence of mind stems more from his inferiority complex and depressive nature than from any depth of philosophical conviction.

Unlike his fellow utopians, Bernard is often angry, resentful, and jealous. At times, he is also cowardly and hypocritical. His conditioning is clearly incomplete. He doesn't enjoy communal sports, solidarity services, or promiscuous sex. He doesn't even get much joy out of soma. Bernard is in love with Lenina but he doesn't like her sleeping with other men, even though "everyone belongs to everyone else".

Bernard's triumphant return to utopian civilisation with John the Savage from the Reservation precipitates the downfall of the Director, who had been planning to exile him. Bernard's triumph is short-lived. Success goes to his head.

Despite his tearful pleas, he is ultimately banished to an island for his non-conformist behaviour. John — the illicit son of the Director and Linda, born and reared on the Savage Reservation "Malpais" after Linda was unwittingly left behind by her errant lover.

John "the Savage", as he is often called is an outsider both on the Reservation—where the natives still practice marriage, natural birth, family life and religion—and the ostensibly civilised World State, based on principles of stability and shallow happiness. He has read nothing but the complete works of William Shakespeare , which he quotes extensively, and, for the most part, aptly, though his allusion to the "Brave New World" Miranda's words in The Tempest takes on a darker and bitterly ironic resonance as the novel unfolds.

The admonishments of the men of Malpais taught him to regard his mother as a whore; but he cannot grasp that these were the same men who continually sought her out despite their supposedly sacred pledges of monogamy.

Because he is unwanted in Malpais, he accepts the invitation to travel back to London and is initially astonished by the comforts of the World State. However, he remains committed to values that exist only in his poetry. He first spurns Lenina for failing to live up to his Shakespearean ideal and then the entire utopian society: After his mother's death, he becomes deeply distressed with grief, surprising onlookers in the hospital.

He then ostracizes himself from society and attempts to purify himself of "sin" desire , but is finally unable to do so and hangs himself in despair. He feels unfulfilled writing endless propaganda doggerel, and the stifling conformism and philistinism of the World State make him restive.

Helmholtz is ultimately exiled to the Falkland Islands —a cold asylum for disaffected Alpha-Plus non-conformists—after reading a heretical poem to his students on the virtues of solitude and helping John destroy some Deltas' rations of soma following Linda's death.

Unlike Bernard, he takes his exile in his stride and comes to view it as an opportunity for inspiration in his writing. Lenina is promiscuous and popular but somewhat quirky in her society: She is basically happy and well-conditioned but will use soma to suppress unwelcome emotions, as is expected. Lenina has a date with Bernard, to whom she feels ambivalently attracted, and she goes to the Reservation with him.

On returning to civilization, she tries and fails to seduce John the Savage. John loves and desires Lenina but he is repelled by her forwardness and the prospect of pre-marital sex, rejecting her as an " impudent strumpet ". Lenina visits John at the lighthouse but he attacks her with a whip, unwittingly inciting onlookers to do the same. Her exact fate is left unspecified.

Sophisticated and good-natured, Mond is an urbane and hyperintelligent advocate of the World State and its ethos of "Community, Identity, Stability".

Among the novel's characters, he is uniquely aware of the precise nature of the society he oversees and what it has given up to accomplish its gains. Mond argues that art, literature, and scientific freedom must be sacrificed to secure the ultimate utilitarian goal of maximising societal happiness. He defends the genetic caste system, behavioural conditioning, and the lack of personal freedom in the World State: Fanny Crowne — Lenina Crowne's friend they have the same last name because only ten thousand last names are in use in the World State.

Fanny voices the conventional values of her caste and society, particularly the importance of promiscuity: Fanny then, however, warns Lenina away from a new lover whom she considers undeserving, yet she is ultimately supportive of the young woman's attraction to the savage John.

Henry Foster — One of Lenina's many lovers, he is a perfectly conventional Alpha male, casually discussing Lenina's body with his coworkers. His success with Lenina, and his casual attitude about it, infuriate the jealous Bernard. Henry ultimately proves himself every bit the ideal World State citizen, finding no courage to defend Lenina from John's assaults despite having maintained an uncommonly longstanding sexual relationship with her.

Benito Hoover — Another of Lenina's lovers. She remembers that he is particularly hairy when he takes his clothes off. His plans take an unexpected turn, however, when Bernard returns from the Reservation with Linda see below and John, a child they both realize is actually his. This fact, scandalous and obscene in the World State not because it was extramarital which all sexual acts are but because it was procreative, leads the Director to resign his post in shame.

Despite following her usual precautions, Linda became pregnant with the Director's son during their time together and was therefore unable to return to the World State by the time that she found her way to Malpais. Having been conditioned to the promiscuous social norms of the World State, Linda finds herself at once popular with every man in the pueblo because she is open to all sexual advances and also reviled for the same reason, seen as a whore by the wives of the men who visit her and by the men themselves who come to her nonetheless.

Linda is desperate to return to the World State and to soma , wanting nothing more from her remaining life than comfort until death.


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Brave New World Revisited (Harper & Brothers, US, ; Chatto & Windus, UK, ), written by Huxley almost thirty years after Brave New World, is a non-fiction work in which Huxley considered whether the world had moved toward or away from his vision of the future from the s. He believed when he wrote the original novel that it was a. “Brave New World Surf and Ski” has been the leading retailer of surfboards, snowboards, skateboards and related fashions eventually expanding to three locations with additional locations in Toms River & Little Silver NJ.