In this critical effort, thought Arnold, England lagged behind France and Germany, and the English accordingly remained in a backwater of provinciality and complacency. Even the great Romantic poets, with all their creative energy, suffered from the want of it.
The English literary critic must know literatures other than his own and be in touch with European standards. To realize how much Arnold widened the horizons of criticism requires only a glance at the titles of some of the other essays in Essays in Criticism It contains many of the ideas for which Arnold is best remembered. In an age of crumbling creeds, poetry will have to replace religion. The remaining essays, with the exception of the last two on Tolstoy and Amiel , all deal with English poets: Arnold has been taken to task for some of his judgments and omissions: Educate and humanize the Philistines, therefore.
Lastly Arnold turned to religion, the constant preoccupation and true centre of his whole life, and wrote St. Arnold considered his religious writings to be constructive and conservative. Those who accused him of destructiveness did not realize how far historical and scientific criticism had already riddled the old foundations; and those who accused him of timidity failed to see that he regarded religion as the highest form of culture, the one indispensable without which all secular education is in vain.
His attitude is best summed up in his own words from the preface to God and the Bible: One is, that men cannot do without it; the other, that they cannot do with it as it is. Arnold died suddenly, of heart failure , in the spring of , at Liverpool and was buried at Laleham, with the three sons whose early loss had shadowed his life. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.
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He was an elementary-school-inspector from He wrote poems until he was thirty3. An introduction to the study of English and American literature. Beach, where he pictured the struggling of his generation with religion and progress and finds a relief in love as a reliable fix-point in life.
His poems became so popular, that he was elected the foremost honorary post of Professor of Poetry at Oxford University, where he was obliged to hold public lectures three times a year. He was the first unordained holder of the post and spoke English instead of Latin. In he held a lecture on translating homer, that was published as a book later. In the Introduction he makes an ominous statement about society as a whole, that was later republished under the title Democracy.
It was not considered to be very helpful by scientists. Having said this, his method can as well be called empirical and inductive.
The subsequent book, Culture and Anarchy, was continuing in the tradition of Essays in Criticism, insofar as it was primarily a collection of essays published in a magazine before. According to Collini , , Arnold was involved in an almost continuous series of overlapping Brown, A. Arnold, Matthew Essays on Criticism. Victorian perspectives on democracy: Arnold retrieved from social criticism, when three of his children died in a short sequence of time.
He started to focus on religion and got a lot of appreciation for that. Later, he declined becoming professor at Oxford again, as well as becoming Director of a University. His contemporaries must have had a different view.
Illustration means giving examples. Comparisons and contrasts are used to make things clearer, show the positive side of something or to find a general principle. A definition is the explanation of vague and ambiguous words. A formal definition puts the term in a general class and then differentiates it from the other members of that class. An extended definition is used to explain an uncommon term which is new or abstract. A Differentiation is showing what is not part of the definition.
A division is the separation into groups, and a classification is the placement of units into these groups. A causal analysis consist of necessary, contributory and sufficient causes. There are different kinds of distinctions possible to differentiate between certain types of essays. On the level of topic, the author can use the a narration, description, exposition or argumentation.
On the level of style, there are more or less formal essays to distinguish. Der Englische Essay, Darmstadt, In this view Culture and Anarchy clearly is an argumentation. He thought that the writer had to be able to unfold his thoughts without constrains. Form, topic and stylistic devices were kept open. So they have hardly a structure, are rhetorical and associative. Therefore, the tone was kept rational and Bacon underlined his educatedness or cited other authorities to be accepted as an advisor.
Arnold lived in a materialistic world where advancement of science has led society in a strange darkneess. Importace of religion was submerged. People were becoming fact seekers. A gap was being devloped and Arnold belived poetry could fill that gap. He had definite aim in writing poetry. He said poetry should serve a greater purpose instead of becoming a mere medium of gaining pleasure and appreciating beauty. According to him the best poetry is criticism of life , abiding laws of poetic truth and poetic beauty.
By poetic truth he meant repersentation of life in true way.
Matthew arrnold one of foremost critic of 19th century is often regarded as father of modern english criticism. Arnold’s work as literary critic started with “Preface to poems ” in It is a kind of manifesto of his critical creed. It reflects classicism as well his views on grand poetic style [ ].
Arnold was the eldest son of Thomas Arnold, an influential educator who served as headmaster of Rugby School for a number of years. Arnold himself attended Rugby from to , and it was.
Matthew Arnold’s prose writings, mainly, were the work of his middle and later years. 12 They deal with, practically, the entire fabric of English civilisation and culture in his day; and they are all directed by one clear and consistent critical purpose. Mr. Arnold's Essays in Criticism come to American readers with a reputation already made,—the reputation of a charming style, a great deal of excellent feeling, and an almost equal amount of questionable reasoning. It is for us either to confirm the verdict passed in the author's own country, or to judge his work afresh.
In Dover Beach, Matthew Arnold describes an evening he spent with his lover. The picturesque sights and sounds around him remind him of the pathetic state of man. Although remembered now for his elegantly argued critical essays, Matthew Arnold, born in Laleham, Middlesex, on December 24, , began his career as a poet, winning early recognition as a student at the Rugby School where his father, Thomas Arnold, had earned national acclaim as a strict and innovative headmaster.